They must go to the U. One cannot give a speech easily while this tyrant has the power to tear sons out of the hearts of Puerto Rican mothers to go to Korea, into hell to be killed, to be the murderers of innocent Koreans In "Concept of Race," Albizu Campos negated the biological and phenotype definition of race to embrace the Spanish meaning of the term raza as a cultural uniting of the peoples of the world, as when through the discovery of America the bloodlines of the peoples of Europe, Africa, and the Western Hemisphere were blended into a cultural unity; this represented his hope that Latinos would be the example and harbinger of the elimination of racial distinctions and superiority.
While Albizu Campos was doing everything possible to break away from the U.
Perales , in San Antonio, Texas. Perales was among the veterans returning from both world wars, where they had received the most casualties and earned the most medlas for valor, to demand the rights they were netitled to as American citizens. An indefatigable orator and writer for more than 50 years, Perales published newspaper columns, had a radio broadcast, and published three volumes of essays and speeches, besides maintaining an active life as an unpaid lobbyist for the advancement of Mexican Americans through fighting for their constitutional rights and education.
Perales insisted that Mexican Americans should retain their culture while maintaining their American citizenship. What we long for is the respect of our unalienable rights and privileges. We would like equality of opportunity in the various battlegrounds of life as well as before courts of justice. We would like for persons of Mexican descent in violation of the laws that govern the country to be tried before a competent Court of Justice and not to be lynched [ We do not want to be ousted, as is frequently done, with the mere excuse of our racial origin.
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In one word, we ask for justice and the opportunity to prosper. She was a tireless enemy of discrimination, racism, and sexism, while seeking to mediate feminism within a nationalist ideology. She was convinced that cultural nationalism did not have to be a restrictive and constraining ideology for women.
Rather, she criticized how the male construction of cultural nationalism equated tradition with women's subordination. It gave us a myth This made us a tribe," she has stated. If the struggle to realize the promises of democracy and republican statehood was long and gave rise to much of the intellectual thought of Latinos in the U. Even Ruiz de Burton used a pseudonym and only openly addressed gender discrimination in her private correspondence.
Nevertheless, there were Latinas who assumed intellectual, creative, and activist roles at first within the areas assigned to women in publications and later in their own newspapers, magazines, and books. They were never as numerous as the thousands of males who wrote and were published, taking for granted their access to and domination of the means of intellectual and artistic production. Many of the women's names are lost to history because of the anonymity or pseudonymity that was part of their strategy for access; other names are only now being recovered, even though these women published side by side, on the same pages, or in the same periodicals, with males.
Through their cultivation at times of unconventional writing genres, such as cookbooks, personal narratives, and the re-telling of folklore, they offered a counter history to Manifest Destiny and proved that a worthy and legitimate civilization existed in the Southwest before Anglo-American expansion. Among the most militant women to have graced American soil were the anarcho-syndicalists who participated in laying the foundations for the Mexican Revolution of While their primary mission was the freeing of Mexico from an iron-fisted dictatorship and the creation of a just and open society in Mexico, their leadership on American soil influenced the existing labor movements and created a model of women's activism in the U.
Sisters Andrea and Teresa Villarreal ? Volad, volad al campo de batalla" What are you doing here, men? Another practitioner of this third-space feminism who, as a fervent anarchist, did not subscribe to nationalist projects and did not believe in social classes or borders, but nevertheless joined the PLM, was Colombian Blanca de Moncaleano By , Blanca de Moncaleano and her husband opened up and ran the Casa del Obrero Internacional The International Workers' House in Los Angeles, where she edited the women's anarchist newspaper Pluma Roja Red Pen , which was known for its virile writing style, figuratively donning men's pants.
Beyond attacking patriarchal society, state, and the Church, Moncaleano was severely critical of revolutionary men not conscious of their own suppression and enslavement of women. She is not on this earth only to procreate, to wash dishes, and to wash clothes. By the end of the 19th century, Laredo was a border crossing and rail terminus for Mexico and had become an important center for revolutionary and feminist organizing.
She soon became an intellectual leader in the border town.
In , she founded a short-lived literary magazine, Aurora; she died that same year, probably of tuberculosis. Villegas was born in Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, but since the age of five had lived in Laredo, where her father administered his ranching, import-export, and other businesses. Within a couple of years, she recruited Texas Anglo and Mexican women for her nursing corps, the Cruz Blanca White Cross , which worked on the battlefields as part of Venustiano Carranza's Constitutionalist Army.
Serving often at Carranza's side, she was like a general to her nurses, and often as well to the female spies and fighters soldaderas who rendered service. When the major hostilities were over and men began taking account of and writing the history of the revolution, Villegas became aware that the important role women had played was soon being forgotten.
Four Days on the Border
She, therefore, wrote her memoir, La rebelde, to correct the record and celebrate the leadership and contributions of women. Despite all of her and her families' connections in the political and business spheres in Mexico, no house would publish her story. She then decided to re-write, not translate, the story in English as The Rebel and met a similar fate with publishers in the U.
Only recently have these memoirs been published, under the editorship of scholar Clara Lomas, who has stated, "These narratives stand as one of the few perspectives written by women in the early s on the Mexican Revolution. They document the pivotal role of border activism that in effect erases geopolitical boundaries. Even though her books were not published in her lifetime, they serve as an example today of a feminism that transcended borders, both of gender and geo-politics.
Unlike Villegas, Capetillo was largely self-educated and belonged to the working class that the aforementioned women intellectuals aspired to liberate. Perhaps this partially explains her more radical embrace of anarchism's anti-nationalist program and its goal for a classless society in which there was absolute equality of the sexes. Born in Puerto Rico and raised by autodidact, unwed working-class parents, Capetillo was politicized from a young age, especially by her mother who participated in literary and study groups often as the only female in attendance.
An almost exclusively male profession in cigar factories on the island and the continent, the lector would spend half the day reading newspapers to the workers and the other half reading a variety of matter, including the works of Kropotkin and Bakunin and other theorists of anarchism and socialism. She also founded and edited a magazine entitled La Mujer Woman. In her personal life as in her writing, Capetillo was iconoclastic, refusing the authority of males, the Church, and the state; deconstructing and criticizing patriotism; working for women's suffrage; and advocating free love.
Puerto Rican writer Clotilde Betances de Jaeger ? After receiving her B. She would spend the rest of her life in New York, teaching and producing an important body of feminist thought, as well as religious writing, in a broad range of periodicals not only published in the city but also in Spanish America and Spain. Betances took the women's fashion and beauty beat as a foothold into the male-dominated media, a foothold that she subsequently transformed into a space for the exploration of feminist issues.
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In Grafico, which became her primary forum for more than 50 columns she penned in and , she took on such issues as the new role of women in society, especially exploring the implications of her having won the vote in the U. In her construction of a "mujer nueva" new woman , Betances encouraged women to participate in the economy and in politics both nationally and internationally.
In her columns, she would comment on city and national politics, presidential campaigns, international affairs, and war, which she denounced repeatedly. In her June 15, column, she analyzed how women's liberation was intimately linked to the economy and that in a time of crisis, like the onset of the Depression, it was incumbent on women to educate themselves and become consciously involved in the economy:.
The economy of the home is part of your jurisdiction; the economy of the world is your heritage. While she advocated Puerto Rican independence from the U.
American Latino Theme Study: Intellectual Traditions (U.S. National Park Service)
From the s, when the first large cohorts of Latinos were admitted to universities, to the present, numerous scholars have resuscitated and studied the ideas of these diverse Latino thinkers who explored the dimensions of nationhood, who sought to understand their particular Latino identity and its relationship to the imagined community that American institutions, media and popular culture have canonized.
More importantly, they and their students have taken their knowledge into the community at the same time they opened the doors to academia wider so that low-income Latinos could achieve an education. Latinas have been in the vanguard of defining and advancing queer and subaltern studies, fields that are further democratizing academia in the 21st century.
Latinos and other people of color have expanded American intellectual canons, from the academy to the social, cultural, and political realms. Not only in revising the history of the U. Today, after some three decades of increased immigration, not just from Mexico and the Caribbean, but also from Central and South America, the Latino community is much larger and much more diverse. In all truth, the intellectual thought and writing by Latinos in the U.
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